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Table 1 Patient demographics and pre-operative characteristics

From: Outcome-volume relationships and transhiatal esophagectomy: minimizing failure to rescue

Variable All cases Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 P-value
Male: Female 5:1 6:1 5:1 4:1 9:1 0.41
Median age at operation, years (range) 62 (40-82) 62 (46-82) 62 (40-77) 62 (40-80) 64 (46-80) 0.54
Smoking history (%) 74 82 78 72 62 0.12
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 27.6 27.9 26.9 28.4 27.3 0.63
Mean pre-operative albumin (g/dL) 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.7 0.054
1 or more comorbidities (%) 62 60 60 56 70 0.52
Histology (%)       0.06
Adenocarcinoma 60 82 80 74 74  
Squamous cell carcinoma 16 10 10 14 13  
High grade dysplasia / CIS 18 6 4 8 9  
Other 2 2 2 0 2  
Pre-Operative Stage (%)§       0.40
0 0 2 0 0 0  
I 18 2 26 20 24  
II 11 4 6 12 22  
III 27 10 34 34 28  
IV 3 0 2 4 6  
Unknown 41 82 32 30 20  
Post-Operative Stage (%)       0.51
0 26 20 22 22 23  
I 22 40 16 26 26  
II 24 18 32 22 24  
III 28 20 22 22 23  
IV 0 0 2 0 1  
Neoadjuvant therapy (%) 60 40 56 68 74 0.003*
  1. CIS – carcinoma in situ.
  2. Group 1 = cases 1 – 50.
  3. Group 2 = cases 51 – 100.
  4. Group 3 = cases 101 – 150.
  5. Group 4 = cases 151-200.
  6. Patients who met the following criteria were considered to have a comorbid condition: a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease or stroke; a diagnosis of hypertension or current treatment with an anti-hypertensive medication; a diagnosis of coronary artery disease or history of coronary artery stenting or coronary artery bypass surgery; and a history of previous deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.
  7. For histology, other includes: gastrointestinal stromal tumor, melanoma, and poorly differentiated carcinoma with neuroendocrine features.
  8. §All esophagectomy patients who were considered stage IV preoperatively had celiac lymph node disease on endoscopic ultrasound (n = 6). Patients were reported to have unknown preoperative staging if the endoscopic ultrasound report was missing from their hospital chart.
  9. *p < 0.05