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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics

From: Minimally invasive facet restoration implant for chronic lumbar zygapophysial pain: 1-year outcomes

Variable Value
N = 37
Male gender , n (%) 19 (51)
Age , yr 52 ± 13
Body mass index , kg/m 2 27 ± 5
Oswestry Disability Index ,% 54 ± 13
Back pain severity , 0-100 scale 77 ± 13
Leg pain severity , 0-100 scale 45 ± 38
Facetogenic pain duration , yr 2 (0-36)
Facet joint osteoarthritis grade , n (%)  
-1 10 (27)
-2 25 (68)
-3 1 (3)
-4 1 (3)
Previous nonsurgical treatments , n (%) 37 (100)
 -Injection, n 37
 -Medication, n 32
 -Physical therapy, n 28
 -Exercise, n 23
 -Chiropractic, n 9
Previous back surgeries , n (%) 25 (68)
 -Fusion, n 9
 -Discectomy, n 7
 -Total disc replacement, n 7
 -Facet procedure, n 6
 -Disc nucleoplasty, n 2
 -Decompression, n 1
Previous back surgery location , n (%)  
 -Any level (L1 to S1) 25 (68)
 -Index level 17 (46)
 -Adjacent level 18 (49)
  1. Continuous data expressed as mean ± sd or median (min-max).